Novel COVID-19: A Comprehensive Review of Transmission, Manifestation, and Pathogenesis.
Cureus. 2020 May 18;12(5):e8184
Authors: Hussain A, Kaler J, Tabrez E, Tabrez S, Tabrez SSM
A global outbreak highlights the start of a new decade as a new strain of coronaviruses emerges. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), also referred to as Wuhan-Hu-1-CoV - amongst many other names - emerged from the West District of Southern China Seafood Wholesale Market in late December 2019. With the emergence of the new decade, the causative agent of COVID-19 was identified: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2). COVID-19 became declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). COVID-19, currently, is affecting 204 countries and territories and two international conveyances. Initial stages of COVID-19 present with symptoms that mimic the common cold and individuals may be asymptomatic carriers and thus, transmitting the virus to others. COVID-19, like other coronaviruses, presents with S glycoproteins on the membrane that plays an integral role in the virus binding with the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. The ACE2 receptor is an intramembrane receptor on the type II pneumocytes, where the virus is able to replicate after getting endocytosed within the cytoplasm. As the viral load increases within the alveolar cell, the alveolar epithelial cell will burst, releasing the newly replicated viral RNA. Elderly individuals are at a greater risk of infection due to weakened immune systems and pre-existing medical conditions resulting in a compromised immune response, also increasing the susceptibility of infection. Infected individuals presenting with mild to moderate symptoms are recommended to self-isolate as the majority will recover without any intervention.
PMID: 32566425 [PubMed]