Does administration of haloperidol or ketorolac decrease opioid administration for abdominal pain patients? A retrospective study.
Am J Emerg Med. 2020 03;38(3):517-520
Authors: Heard K, Bebarta VS, Hoppe JA, Monte AA
BACKGROUND: Haloperidol and ketorolac have been recommended as therapies that may decrease opioid use for treatment of pain in emergency department patients. The objective of our study is to determine if administration of haloperidol or ketorolac is associated with lower use of i.v. opioids for patients with non-specific abdominal pain.
METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of adults (Age 18-60) with non-specific abdominal pain presenting to an emergency department in a large healthcare system. Cases were identified using ICD-10 codes and variables were abstracted from electronic health records. The association between administration of haloperidol or ketorolac with 1) any i.v. opioid administration and 2) receiving >1 dose of i.v. opioids were measured using adjusted odds ratios (AOR) from nominal logistic regression. The model included potential confounders related to both opioid and ketorolac or haloperidol administration.
RESULTS: Of 11,688 patients 4091 received one or more doses of an i.v. opioid, 240 received haloperidol and 1788 received ketorolac. The majority of patients were women (67%) and the median age was 32 years. Odds ratios were adjusted for variables associated with opioids, ketorolac or haloperidol use. Haloperidol was not associated with decreased i.v. opioid use (AOR for receiving iv opioids 2.0, 95% CI 1.5 to 2.6) or a lower odds of reciving >1 dose of (AOR 2.0, 95% CI 1.3 to 3.1). Ketorolac was associated with a modest decrease in i.v. opioid use (AOR 0.84 95% CI.0.76 to 0.94 for receiving iv opioids) and a modest decrease for receiving multiple dose of iv opioids (AOR 0.79 95% CI 0.63 to 0.99).
CONCLUSIONS: Haloperidol was not associated with decreased i.v. opioid use. Ketorolac was associated with a modest decrease in i.v. opioid use. Providers should consider the use of haloperidol and ketorolac as potentially beneficial in some cases, but there is a need for high quality studies before they can be recommended as standard therapy.
PMID: 31138518 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]