J Clin Gastroenterol. 2021 Feb 1;55(2):174-179. doi: 10.1097/MCG.0000000000001378.
GOALS: The goals of this study were to evaluate trends in hospitalizations and in-hospital mortality among US adults with alcohol-associated cirrhosis and alcoholic hepatitis.
BACKGROUND: Alcohol-associated liver disease contributes to significant liver-related morbidity in the United States, among which inpatient care is a major driver of clinical and economic burden.
METHODS: Using the 2007-2014 National Inpatient Sample, alcohol-associated cirrhosis and alcoholic hepatitis hospitalizations were identified. Survey-weighted annual hospitalization trends were stratified by sex, race/ethnicity, and age and compared using χ2 and Student's t-test methods. Adjusted multivariate logistic regression models evaluated predictors of in-hospital mortality.
RESULTS: Among 159,973 alcohol-associated liver disease hospitalizations, 83.7% had a primary diagnosis of alcohol-associated cirrhosis and 18.4% had a primary diagnosis of alcoholic hepatitis. Sex-specific differences in hospitalizations emerged, with significantly higher hospitalization rates seen in males versus females among both alcoholic hepatitis [incidence rate ratio=3.71, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.47-4.01, P<0.01] and alcohol-associated cirrhosis (incidence rate ratio=2.68, 95% CI: 2.21-3.71, P<0.01). Differences in hospitalization and mortality by ethnicity were observed for both alcohol-associated cirrhosis and alcoholic hepatitis. African Americans with alcohol-associated cirrhosis had significantly higher in-hospital mortality compared with non-Hispanic whites [odds ratio (OR)=1.13, 95% CI: 1.04-1.24, P<0.01], whereas Native Americans (OR=1.88, 95% CI: 1.06-3.34, P=0.030) and Asian/Pacific Islanders (OR=2.02, 95% CI: 1.00-4.06, P=0.048) with alcoholic hepatitis had significantly higher in-hospital mortality compared with non-Hispanic whites.
CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated increasing alcohol-associated cirrhosis and alcoholic hepatitis hospitalizations in the United States. The highest rates were observed in men and among Native American and Hispanic ethnic minorities. Significant ethnicity-specific disparities in mortality were observed.