The Role of Fractional Excretion of Uric Acid in the Differential Diagnosis of Hypotonic Hyponatraemia in Patients with Diuretic Therapy.
Cureus. 2020 Apr 21;12(4):e7762
Authors: Bassi V, Fattoruso O
Hyponatraemia is the most common electrolyte imbalance found in hospital population and worldwide thiazide and loop-diuretics are among the most widely used drugs. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis diagnosis (SIAD) is complicated in the presence of diuretic therapy due to the misleading clinical assessment of the extracellular volume status, and in order to make SIAD diagnosis it is often necessary to withdraw diuretic therapy. Our study aimed to investigate the diagnostic role of these alternative markers of volume status, serum uric acid (sUA) and fractional excretion of uric acid (FEUA), in hyponatraemic patients treated with different diuretic drugs. Eighty-nine patients were enrolled with the diagnosis of SIAD, diuretic-induced hyponatremia (DIH, treated with furosemide and potassium canrenoate) or thiazide-induced hyponatremia (TIH, treated with hydrochlorothiazide, metolazone or indapamide) and investigated with receiver operating characteristic analysis and a sensitivity test. Our results show that FEUA discriminated better than sUA between SIAD and DIH patients (area under curve 0.96, <0.001 vs. 0.88, <0.001) while it was a poor marker to discriminate between SIAD and TIH (0.65, NS vs. 0.67, NS). In conclusions, FEUA is an excellent marker to discriminate SIAD vs. sodium depleted patients treated with furosemide and/or potassium canrenoate while the diuretic withdrawal, beyond obtaining a serum Na normalization, is still mandatory for differential diagnosis of sodium depleted patients affected by thiazide-induced hyponatraemia.
PMID: 32455079 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]