Expert Panel on Urological Imaging , et al. J Am Coll Radiol 2020.
Hematuria is a common reason for patients to be referred for imaging of the urinary tract. All patients diagnosed with hematuria should undergo a thorough history and physical examination, urinalysis, and serologic testing prior to any initial imaging. Ultrasound, CT, and MRI are the most common imaging modalities used to evaluate hematuria. This document discusses the following clinical scenarios for hematuria: initial imaging of microhematuria without risk factors or history of recent vigorous exercise, or presence of infection, or viral illness, or present or recent menstruation; initial imaging of microhematuria in patients with known risk factors and no history of recent vigorous exercise, or presence of infection, or viral illness, or present or recent menstruation or renal parenchymal disease; initial imaging of microhematuria in the pregnant patient and initial imaging of gross hematuria. Follow-up of normal or abnormal findings is beyond the scope of this review. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment.