Characterization of variable presentations of diabetic ketoacidosis based on blood ketone levels and major society diagnostic criteria: a new view point on the assessment of diabetic ketoacidosis.
Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes. 2019;12:1161-1171
Authors: Lee K, Park IB, Yu SH, Kim SK, Kim SH, Seo DH, Hong S, Jeon JY, Kim DJ, Kim SW, Choi CS, Lee DH
Aim: We aimed to evaluate the clinical utility of blood ketone measurement and to test the performance of the diagnostic criteria for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) issued by the American Diabetes Association, the Joint British Diabetes Societies, and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and the American College of Endocrinology.
Methods: This retrospective analysis included 278 patients with suspected DKA who were hospitalized at 4 university hospitals and aged ≥16 years with a blood glucose level of >200 mg/dL and a blood ketone level of ≥1.0 mmol/L as well as other biochemical data. The patients were categorized into four subgroups (ketosis, typical DKA, atypical DKA, and DKA + lactic acidosis). Atypical DKA in each analysis was defined by our supplementary criteria if the biochemical data did not meet each set of diagnostic criteria from the aforementioned societies.
Results: Blood ketone levels in patients with diabetic ketosis and those with DKA varied widely, 1.05-5.13 mmol/L and 1.02-15.9 mmol/L, respectively. Additionally, there were significant discrepancies between the guidelines in the diagnosis of DKA. Thus, the proportion of patients with atypical DKA ranged from 16.5% to 42.4%. Notably, the in-hospital mortality was comparable between patients with typical and atypical DKA, with a very high mortality in patients with DKA + lactic acidosis (blood lactate >5 mmol/L).
Conclusions: Our results showed that considering variable presentations of DKA, blood ketone data need to be interpreted cautiously along with other biochemical data and suggested that a new system is required to better characterize DKA.
PMID: 31410042 [PubMed]