Inferior Outcomes of Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction and Comorbid Protein-Energy Malnutrition.
JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2019 Jul 18;:
Authors: Adejumo AC, Adejumo KL, Adegbala OM, Enwerem N, Ofosu A, Akanbi O, Fijabi DO, Ogundipe OA, Pani L, Adeboye A
BACKGROUND: Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) diminishes amino acid and energy availability, impairing the body's healing capability after injury, such as in myocardial damage following acute myocardial infarction (AMI).
AIMS: We sought to investigate the influence of PEM on clinical outcomes of AMI.
METHODS: We identified records with a primary discharge diagnosis of AMI from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (2012-2014), stratified by concomitant PEM. We matched PEM to no-PEM (1:1) using a greedy algorithm-based propensity methodology and estimated the impact of PEM on health outcomes (SAS 9.4).
RESULTS: Of the 332,644 hospitalizations for AMI, 11,675 had concomitant PEM accounting for roughly $US 1.5 billion and over 119,792 hospital days. PEM was associated with older age (74.43- vs. 66.90-years; P < 0.0001), female sex (49.19% vs. 38.44%; P < 0.0001), black race (12.78% vs. 10.46%; P < 0.0001), and higher comorbidity burden (Deyo > 3: 32.77% vs. 16.69%; P < 0.0001). After propensity matching, PEM was associated with higher mortality (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.59 [1.46-1.73]), cardiogenic shock (AOR: 2.26 [2.08-2.44]), discharge to secondary facilities (AOR: 2.21 [2.10-2.33]), charges ($135,500 [$131,956-139,139] vs. $81,084 [$79,241-82,970]), cardiac artery bypass surgery (AOR:1.81 [1.66-1.97]), intra-aortic balloon pump placement (AOR: 1.83 [1.65-2.04]) and longer length of stay (10.15- vs. 5.52-days).
CONCLUSIONS: PEM is a predisposing factor for devastating clinical outcomes among AMI hospitalizations. Higher prevention, identification and management of PEM among high-risk individuals (older age, female sex, and black race) residing in the community are needed.
PMID: 31317574 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]