Heparin-like Effect Associated With Risk of Bleeding, Sepsis, and Death in Patients With Severe Alcohol-associated Hepatitis.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2019 May 08;:
Authors: Premkumar M, Bihari C, Saxena P, Devurgowda D, Vyas T, Mirza R, Jain P, Kumar G, Bhatia P, Baweja S, Choudhury A, Sarin SK
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Endogenous heparinoids or heparin-like effects (HLEs) can cause coagulation failure in patients with cirrhosis and sepsis. We performed a prospective study of the association between HLE and bleeding events, sepsis, and outcomes of patients with severe alcohol-associated hepatitis.
METHODS: Our final analysis comprised 78 patients with severe alcohol-associated hepatitis (44.3 ± 11.7 years; all male; discriminant function>32) who presented without sepsis at a single center in India from August 2015 through August 2016. Blood samples were collected at days 0, 3, and 7 after presentation and assessed by a global coagulation assay; by SONOCLOT (global and heparinase treated); and in assays for factor VIII, von Willebrand factor, protein C, and antithrombin. Patients were followed for sepsis, bleeding and outcome. The primary outcome was association of HLE with survival 28 days after presentation.
RESULTS: HLEs were observed in 32 patients (41%) at day 0, 27 patients (34.6%) at day 3, and 28 patients (35.9%) patients at day 7. Factors associated with mortality at day 0 were factor VIII activity >160% (hazard ratio [HR], 3.1; 95% CI, 1.4-9.5; P=.026), level of protein C <34% (HR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.5-0.8; P=.037), antithrombin activity <28% (HR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.3-1.1; P=.008) and international normalized ratio >2.6 (HR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.8-9.7; P=.010). In multivariate analyses, only factor VIII activity (HR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.6-7.8; P=.046), international normalized ratio (1.9; CI 1.2-4.3; P=.039), level of protein C (HR, 0.9; 95% CI 0.7-1.1; P=.052) and model for end-stage liver disease score (HR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.9-10.2; P=.042) were associated with mortality. Episodes of epistaxis, hemorrhoid bleeding, hemoperitoneum, and pulmonary hemorrhage occurred in 10.2%, 12.3%, 3.4%, and 4.5% of patients respectively. The presence of HLE at day 0 increased the risk of sepsis (HR, 2.5; 95% CI, 2.2-4.3; P=.002), bleeding (HR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.2-5.3; P=.004) and death (HR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.4-1.7; P=.044).
CONCLUSIONS: In a prospective study of patients with severe alcohol-associated hepatitis, we associated HLE with coagulation abnormalities, risk of sepsis, and mortality. Clinicaltrials.gov no: NCT02307409.
PMID: 31077821 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]