Factors Associated With Opioid Use in Patients Hospitalized for Acute Pancreatitis.

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Factors Associated With Opioid Use in Patients Hospitalized for Acute Pancreatitis.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019 Apr 05;2(4):e191827

Authors: Wu BU, Butler RK, Chen W

Importance: Limited guidance exists regarding the optimal approach to management of pain in acute pancreatitis (AP).
Objectives: To investigate sources of variability in opioid use for treatment of acute pain in patients hospitalized for AP and to explore a potential association of opioid prescribing patterns with length of stay.
Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study included 4307 patients 18 years and older hospitalized for AP in a community-based integrated health care system, from January 1, 2008, to June 30, 2015. Analysis began in November 2017.
Exposures: Opioid use was quantified by morphine equivalent dose (MED).
Main Outcomes and Measures: Three analyses were performed: (1) factors associated with increased opioid administration during the initial 12 hours of hospitalization (baseline), (2) association of baseline opioid use with length of stay, and (3) frequency of opioid use 90 days after hospital discharge (persistent use).
Results: The cohort included 4307 patients (median [interquartile range] age, 57.4 [44.0-70.2] years; 2241 women [52.0%]) with AP. At baseline, 3443 patients (79.9%) received opioids, and 388 patients (9.6%) had persistent opioid use after discharge. After adjusting for pain and other clinical factors, women received less MED than men (adjusted event ratio, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.79-0.86; P < .001). Hispanic and Asian patients received less MED than non-Hispanic white patients (adjusted event ratio, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.81-0.90; P < .001; and adjusted event ratio, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.72-0.86; P < .001, respectively). Alcohol-related AP etiology was associated with increased MED vs gallstone disorders (adjusted event ratio, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.05-1.18; P < .001). Two of 13 hospitals administered significantly less opioids compared with the others. Median (interquartile range) length of stay was independently associated with MED at baseline, with 3.0 (2.1-4.5) days among patients not receiving opioids vs 5.0 (3.2-8.7) days among patients in the highest quintile of MED (P < .001).
Conclusions and Relevance: In addition to pain and disease severity, opioid use varied by etiology of AP, sex, race/ethnicity, and institution of treatment. Increased opioid use at baseline was associated with longer hospitalization. These findings suggest opportunities for improved approaches to pain control for patients with AP.

PMID: 30977846 [PubMed - in process]

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