Catheter-directed thrombolysis versus suction thrombectomy in the management of acute pulmonary embolism.
J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord. 2019 Mar 20;:
Authors: Avgerinos ED, Abou Ali A, Toma C, Wu B, Saadeddin Z, McDaniel B, Al-Khoury G, Chaer RA
BACKGROUND: Catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) is increasingly performed for acute pulmonary embolism (PE) because it is presumed to provide similar therapeutic benefits to systemic thrombolysis, while decreasing the dose of thrombolytic required and the associated risks. Contemporary suction thrombectomy (ST) devices have entered the market as minimal or no-lytic alternatives, but there is no evidence on their comparative effectiveness. This study aims to compare clinical outcomes of these two interventional alternatives.
METHODS: Consecutive patients who underwent a ST catheter intervention for massive or submassive PE between 2011 and 2017 were identified. For each of these patients, a nearest-neighbor matching was implemented to identify at least three CDT patients who matched as closely as possible on the following six variables: PE type, age, gender, acute deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary disease, and year of procedure. The end point was clinical success defined as meeting all the following criteria: survival to hospital discharge without major bleeding (Global Utilization of Streptokinase and t-PA for Occluded Coronary Arteries moderate or severe), perioperative stroke or other major adverse procedure-related event, and decompensation for submassive or persistent shock for massive PE.
RESULTS: Of 277 patients who received an intervention for acute PE, 54 CDT (63.5 ± 14.2 years of age; 18 massive PE) were matched with 18 ST (64.1 ± 14.1 years of age; 6 massive PE) patients. In the CDT group, 38 (70.4%) received ultrasound-assisted thrombolysis. The ST group had significantly more patients who had a major contraindication for lytics (1 [1.9%] for CDT vs 9 [50%] for ST; P < .001). There was no difference in major bleeding (8 [14.8%] for CDT vs 3 [16.7%] for ST; P > .999; Global Utilization of Streptokinase and t-PA for Occluded Coronary Arteries severe 1 [1.8%] for CDT vs 1 [5.6%] for ST; P > .999), stroke (3.7% for CDT vs 0 for ST; P = .408), or death (3.7% for CDT vs 16.7% for ST; P = .096). One patient in the ST group suffered tricuspid valve rupture and two patients in CDT group required surgical thrombectomy. Clinical success was not statistically different between groups (75.9% for CDT vs 61.1% for ST; P = .224). The association was similar when assessing the right/left ventricular ratio improvement (0.30 ± 0.19 for CDT vs 0.17 ± 0.16 for ST; P = .097), or the subgroup of patients with submassive PE (86.1% for CDT vs 66.7% for ST; P = .135).
CONCLUSIONS: CDT seems to have similar outcomes with ST in the management of acute PE, although larger, more homogenous data are needed. In our experience, ST should be viewed as a complementary alternative for patients with contraindication for thrombolytics or severely compromised hemodynamic profile and can yield good outcomes in an otherwise highly morbid population.
PMID: 30902560 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]