Sarcoidosis Involving the Gastrointestinal Tract: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Management.
Am J Gastroenterol. 2019 Mar 08;:
Authors: Brito-Zerón P, Bari K, Baughman RP, Ramos-Casals M
Involvement of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is an infrequent extrathoracic presentation of sarcoidosis. We reviewed 305 cases of GI involvement reported in 238 patients, in whom GI sarcoidosis was the first sign of the disease in half the cases. The disease does not affect the GI tract uniformly, with a clear oral-anal gradient (80% of reported cases involved the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum). Clinicopathological mechanisms of damage may include diffuse mucosal infiltration, endoluminal exophytic lesions, involvement of the myenteric plexus, and extrinsic compressions. Ten percent of patients presented with asymptomatic or subclinical disease found on endoscopy. The diagnosis is relevant clinically because 22% of cases reviewed presented as life threatening. In addition, initial clinical/endoscopic findings may be highly suggestive of GI cancer. The therapeutic approach is heterogeneous and included wait-and-see or symptomatic approaches, glucocorticoid/immunosuppressive therapy, and surgery. Sarcoidosis of the gut is a heterogeneous, potentially life-threatening condition that requires a multidisciplinary approach and early clinical suspicion to institute personalized therapeutic management and follow-up.
PMID: 30865014 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]