Management of superior vena cava syndrome in critically ill cancer patients.

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Management of superior vena cava syndrome in critically ill cancer patients.

Support Care Cancer. 2018 02;26(2):521-528

Authors: Morin S, Grateau A, Reuter D, de Kerviler E, de Margerie-Mellon C, de Bazelaire C, Zafrani L, Schlemmer B, Azoulay E, Canet E

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to describe the management and outcome of critically ill cancer patients with Superior Vena Cava Syndrome (SVCS).
METHODS: All cancer patients admitted to the medical intensive care unit (ICU) of the Saint-Louis University Hospital for a SVCS between January 2004 and December 2016 were included.
RESULTS: Of the 50 patients included in the study, obstruction of the superior vena cava was partial in two-thirds of the cases and complete in one-third. Pleural effusion was reported in two-thirds of the patients, pulmonary atelectasis in 16 (32%), and pulmonary embolism in five (10%). Computed tomography of the chest showed upper airway compression in 18 (36%) cases, while echocardiography revealed 22 (44%) pericardial effusions. The causes of SVCS were diagnosed one (0-3) day after ICU admission, using interventional radiology procedures in 70% of the cases. Thirty (60%) patients had hematological malignancies, and 20 (40%) had solid tumors. Fifteen (30%) patients required invasive mechanical ventilation, seven (14%) received vasopressors, and renal replacement therapy was implemented in three (6%). ICU, in-hospital, and 6-month mortality rates were 20, 26, and 48%, respectively. The cause of SVCS was the only factor independently associated with day 180 mortality by multivariate analysis. Patients with hematological malignancies had a lower mortality than those with solid tumors (27 versus 80%) (odds ratio 0.12, 95% confidence interval (0.02-0.60), p < 0.01).
CONCLUSION: Airway obstruction and pleural and pericardial effusions contributed to the unstable condition of cancer patients with SVCS. The vital prognosis of SVCS was mainly related to the underlying diagnosis.

PMID: 28836006 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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