Signs and Symptoms of Hypoparathyroidism.
Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2018 Dec;47(4):759-770
Authors: Cusano NE, Bilezikian JP
Hypoparathyroidism is associated with a spectrum of clinical manifestations in the acute and chronic settings, from mild to debilitating. Although the acute symptoms of hypocalcemia are primarily due to neuromuscular irritability, the chronic manifestations of hypoparathyroidism may be due to the disease itself or to complications of therapy or to both. The chronic complications of hypoparathyroidism can affect multiple organ systems, including the renal, neurologic, neuropsychiatric, skeletal, and immune systems. Further research is needed to determine the pathophysiology of complications in hypoparathyroidism and whether interventions can decrease the risk of these complications.
PMID: 30390811 [PubMed - in process]