A model for Glomerular filtration Rate Assessment In Liver disease (GRAIL) in the presence of renal dysfunction.
Hepatology. 2018 Oct 19;:
Authors: Asrani SK, Jennings LW, Trotter JF, Levitsky J, Nadim MK, Kim WR, Gonzalez SA, Fischbach B, Bahirwani R, Emmett M, Klintmalm G
Estimation of glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in patients with liver disease is suboptimal in presence of renal dysfunction. We developed a model for GFR Assessment In Liver disease (GRAIL) before and after liver transplantation (LT). GRAIL was derived using objective variables (creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, age, gender, race, albumin) to estimate GFR based on timing of measurement relative to LT and degree of renal dysfunction. Measured GFR (mGFR) by iothalamate clearance (n=12,122, 1985-2015) at protocol time points before/after LT was used as reference. GRAIL was compared to Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) and Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD-4, MDRD-6) equations for mGFR<30ml/min/1.73m2 . Prediction of development of chronic kidney disease (mGFR < 20ml/min/1.73m2 , initiation of chronic dialysis) and listing or receipt of kidney transplantation within 5 years was examined in internal cohort (n=785) and external validation (n=68,217, 2001-2015). GRAIL had less bias, was more accurate and precise as compared to CKD-EPI, MDRD-4 and MDRD-6 at time points before/after LT for low GFR. For mGFR<30ml/min/1.73m2 , the median difference (eGFR-mGFR) was GRAIL: 5.24 [9.65] ml/min/1.73m2 as compared to CKD-EPI: 8.70 [18.24]ml/min/1.73m2 , MDRD-4: 8.82 [17.38]ml/min/1.73m2 , and MDRD-6: 6.53[14.42] ml/min/1.73m2 . Prior to LT, GRAIL correctly classified 75% as having mGFR<30ml/min/1.73m2 vs. 36.1% (CKD-EPI), 36.1%(MDRD-4), and 52.8%(MDRD-6).(p<0.01) An eGFR<30ml/min/1.73m2 by GRAIL predicted development of CKD (26.9% vs. 4.6% CKD-EPI, 5.9% MDRD-4, and 10.5% MDRD-6) in center data and needing kidney after LT (48.3% vs. 22.0% CKD-EPI vs. 23.1% MDRD-4 vs. 48.3% MDRD-6, p<0.01) in national data within 5 years after LT. CONCLUSION: GRAIL may serve as an alternative model to estimate GFR amongst patients with liver disease before and after LT at low GFR. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
PMID: 30338870 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]