Whipple's disease and Tropheryma whipplei infections: when to suspect them and how to diagnose and treat them.
Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2018 Oct 05;:
Authors: Lagier JC, Raoult D
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The delay between first clinical signs and diagnosis of Whipple's disease and T. whipplei infections is more than 6 years, and relapses are frequently observed, resulting in a need for clinicians to be aware of this infection.
RECENT FINDINGS: 18 FDG-PET is useful in the diagnosis and the follow-up of patients (particularly in case of neurological involvement). Histological involvement remains the goldstandard for classic Whipple's disease diagnosis. PCR performed on biopsies of fluid is the main tool for the diagnosis of localized chronic infections. PCR performed on urine samples should become an important role of non-invasive diagnostic strategies, while T. whipplei PCR performed on saliva and stool lack specificity. Because of lifetime susceptibility to T. whipplei and in vitro susceptibility data, a one year course of doxycycline and hydroxychloroquine followed by a lifelong treatment by doxycycline is recommended for Whipple's disease, localized endocarditis and encephalitis.
SUMMARY: Clinical involvement of the different T. whipplei infections is well described, as well as the treatment of Whipple's disease, endocarditis and encephalitis. The place of PCR performed on urine remains to be clarified for diagnosis of localized T. whipplei infections and acute infections as well as the optimal treatment for arthritis and acute infections.
PMID: 30299363 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]