Current and emerging pharmacotherapy for the treatment of bacterial peritonitis.
Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2018 Aug 02;:1-9
Authors: Maraolo AE, Gentile I, Pinchera B, Nappa S, Borgia G
INTRODUCTION: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is the quintessential model of bacterial infection in cirrhotic patients. In these particularly frail subjects, infections clearly worsen prognosis increasing substantially mortality. Furthermore, treatment of SBP has become more challenging because of the growing impact of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. Areas covered: This review addresses the reasons behind the change in therapeutic recommendations for SBP that have occurred in the past few years, by focusing on the following aspects: the importance of an early appropriate empirical treatment, the difference between nosocomial and non-nosocomial forms and the overall microbiological shift (rise of Gram-positive bacteria and MDR strains) that have affected SBP. Expert opinion: Until recently, third-generation cephalosporins have represented the cornerstone of SBP treatment, a safe choice covering the most important causative agents, namely Enterobacteriaceae. Unfortunately, massive exposure to health systems makes cirrhotic patients prone to MDR infections, which poses significant challenges, all the while not forgetting to strike a balance between effective antimicrobial activity and the risk of toxicity in these fragile subjects. Moreover, there is sparse information about new antibiotics in cirrhotic patients and about drugs levels in ascitic fluid. Therefore, further research is needed to optimize the treatment of SBP.
PMID: 30071176 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]