Extreme hypomagnesemia: characteristics of 119 consecutive inpatients.
Intern Emerg Med. 2018 Jun 27;:
Authors: Cheminet G, Clain G, Jannot AS, Ranque B, Passeron A, Michon A, De Luna G, Diehl JL, Oudard S, Cellier C, Karras A, Vedié B, Prot-Bertoye C, Pouchot J, Arlet JB
Extreme hypomagnesemia (hypoMg) can be encountered in many situations, but little data currently exist. Our aim is to describe the epidemiological, clinical, etiological characteristics, and the biological abnormalities of consecutive inpatients with extreme hypomagnesemia. In our observational monocentric study, between 1st July 2000 and April 2015, all inpatients with extreme hypomagnesemia, defined by at least one plasma magnesium concentration (PMg) below 0.3 mmol/L, were included. Demographic, clinical, biological characteristics and the drugs prescribed before the qualifying PMg measurement were retrospectively collected. 41,069 patients had at least one PMg assessment. The prevalence of extreme hypomagnesemia is 0.3% (119 inpatients). The median age is 70 years, 52% are women. The patients were mainly hospitalized in intensive care (n = 37, 31.1%), oncology (n = 21, 17.6%), gastroenterology (n = 18, 15.1%) and internal medicine (n = 16, 13.4%) departments. One hundred patients (84%) had a medical history of gastrointestinal disease (39% with bowel resections, 24% with stoma), and 50 (42%) had a cancer history. The drugs most commonly prescribed (known to induce hypoMg) are proton pump inhibitors (PPI) (n = 77, 70%), immunosuppressive regimens (n = 25, 22.5%), platinum salt-based chemotherapies (n = 19, 17.1%), and diuretics (n = 22, 19.8%). The suspected causes of hypomagnesemia are often multiple, but drugs (46%, including PPI in 19%) and chronic gastrointestinal disorders (37%) are prominent. Associated electrolyte disturbances include hypocalcemia (77%) and mild hypokalemia (51%). The 1-month mortality from all causes is 16%. Extreme hypomagnesemia is rare in inpatients, and is frequently associated with severe hypocalcemia. Digestive disorders and drugs are the main contributory causes.
PMID: 29951810 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]