Drug-Associated Acute Kidney Injury Identified in the United States Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System Database.

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Drug-Associated Acute Kidney Injury Identified in the United States Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System Database.

Pharmacotherapy. 2018 Jun 08;:

Authors: Welch HK, Kellum JA, Kane-Gill SL

Abstract
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common condition associated with both short-term and long-term consequences including dialysis, chronic kidney disease, and mortality. Although the United States Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) database is a powerful tool to examine drug-associated events, to our knowledge, no study has analyzed this database to identify the most common drugs reported with AKI. The objective of this study was to analyze AKI reports and associated medications in the FAERS database.
DESIGN: Retrospective pharmacovigilance disproportionality analysis.
DATA SOURCE: FAERS database.
MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We queried the FAERS database for reports of AKI from 2004 quarter 1 through 2015 quarter 3. Extracted drugs were assessed using published references and categorized as known, possible, or new potential nephrotoxins. The reporting odds ratio (ROR), a measure of reporting disproportionality, was calculated for the 20 most frequently reported drugs in each category. We retrieved 7,241,385 adverse event reports, of which 193,996 (2.7%) included a report of AKI. Of the AKI reports, 16.5% were known nephrotoxins, 18.6% were possible nephrotoxins, and 64.8% were new potential nephrotoxins. Among the most commonly reported drugs, those with the highest AKI ROR were aprotinin (7,614 reports; ROR 115.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] 110.63-121.01), sodium phosphate (1,687 reports; ROR 55.81, 95% CI 51.78-60.17), furosemide (1,743 reports; ROR 12.61, 95% CI 11.94-13.32), vancomycin (1,270 reports, ROR 12.19, 95% CI 11.45-12.99), and metformin (4,701 reports; ROR 10.65, 95% CI 10.31-11.00). The combined RORs for the 20 most frequently reported drugs with each nephrotoxin classification were 3.71 (95% CI 3.66-3.76) for known nephrotoxins, 2.09 (95% CI 2.06-2.12) for possible nephrotoxins, and 1.55 (95% CI 1.53-1.57) for new potential nephrotoxins.
CONCLUSION: AKI was a common reason for adverse event reporting in the FAERS. Most AKI reports were generated for medications not recognized as nephrotoxic according to our classification system. This report provides data on medications needing further research to determine the risk of AKI with these new potential nephrotoxins. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

PMID: 29883524 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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