Evaluation of Suspected Dementia.
Am Fam Physician. 2018 Mar 15;97(6):398-405
Authors: Falk N, Cole A, Meredith TJ
Dementia is a significant and costly health condition that affects 5 million adults and is the fifth leading cause of death among Americans older than 65 years. The prevalence of dementia will likely increase in the future because the number of Americans older than 65 years is expected to double by 2060. Risk factors for dementia include age; family history of dementia; personal history of cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, or midlife obesity; use of anticholinergic medications; apolipoprotein E4 genotype; and lower education level. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force and the American Academy of Family Physicians have concluded that current evidence is insufficient to assess the benefits vs. harms of screening for cognitive impairment in older adults. If dementia is suspected, physicians can use brief screening tests such as Mini-Cog or General Practitioner Assessment of Cognition. If the results are abnormal, further evaluation is warranted using more in-depth screening tools such as the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, Saint Louis University Mental Status Examination, or Mini-Mental State Examination. Diagnostic testing and secondary evaluation, including screening for depression, appropriate laboratory studies for other conditions that cause cognitive impairment, and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, should be performed when cognitive impairment is confirmed. Routine cerebrospinal fluid testing and genetic testing for the apolipoprotein E4 allele are not recommended.
PMID: 29671539 [PubMed - in process]