Evidence Based Review of Pharmacotherapy for Opioid-Induced Constipation in Noncancer Pain.

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Evidence Based Review of Pharmacotherapy for Opioid-Induced Constipation in Noncancer Pain.

Ann Pharmacother. 2017 Oct 01;:1060028017739637

Authors: Murphy JA, Sheridan EA

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To summarize and evaluate the existing literature regarding medications to treat opioid-induced constipation (OIC) in patients with chronic noncancer pain (CNCP).
DATA SOURCES: PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science were searched using the following terms: constipation, opioid, chronic, pain, noncancer, nonmalignant, methylnaltrexone, alvimopan, lubiprostone, naloxegol, and naldemedine.
STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: The search was limited to randomized controlled trials reporting human outcomes. Data extracted included the following: study design, population, intervention, control, outcomes related to OIC and safety, and potential biases assessed using Cochrane Collaboration's Risk of Bias Assessment Tool.
DATA SYNTHESIS: After assessment, 16 of the 190 studies were included: methylnaltrexone (n = 4), naloxegol (n = 3), naldemedine (n = 2), lubiprostone (n = 3), and alvimopan (n = 4). Lubiprostone was the only nonperipherally acting µ-opioid receptor antagonist included. Only 1 study (naloxegol) used "usual care" (nonstudy laxative) rather than placebo as a comparator. Placebo-controlled trials demonstrated benefit for methylnaltrexone, naloxegol, naldemedine, and lubiprostone, with conflicting evidence for alvimopan. No data suggest that one agent is better than another. Overall risk of bias across all studies was low to moderate.
CONCLUSIONS: With risk of bias determined to be low to moderate, published data to date suggest that methylnaltrexone, naloxegol, and naldemedine may be appropriate to treat OIC in patients with CNCP.

PMID: 29092627 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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