Review of Opioid Pharmacogenetics and Considerations for Pain Management.
Pharmacotherapy. 2017 Jul 12;:
Authors: Owusu Obeng A, Hamadeh I, Smith M
Opioid analgesics are the standards of care for the treatment of moderate to severe nociceptive pain, particularly in the setting of cancer and surgery. Their analgesic properties mainly emanate from stimulation of the μ receptors, which are encoded by the OPRM1 gene. Hepatic metabolism represents the major route of elimination, which, for some opioids, namely codeine and tramadol, is necessary for their bioactivation into more potent analgesics. The highly polymorphic nature of the genes coding for phase I and phase II enzymes (pharmacokinetics genes) that are involved in the metabolism and bioactivation of opioids suggests a potential interindividual variation in their disposition and, most likely, response. In fact, such an association has been substantiated in several pharmacokinetic studies described in this review, in which drug exposure and/or metabolism differed significantly based on the presence of polymorphisms in these pharmacokinetics genes. Furthermore, in some studies, the observed variability in drug exposure translated into differences in the incidence of opioid-related adverse effects, particularly nausea, vomiting, constipation, and respiratory depression. Although the influence of polymorphisms in pharmacokinetics genes, as well as pharmacodynamics genes (OPRM1 and COMT) on response to opioids has been a subject of intense research, the results have been somehow conflicting, with some evidence insinuating for a potential role for OPRM1. The Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium guidelines provide CYP2D6-guided therapeutic recommendations to individualize treatment with tramadol and codeine. However, implementation guidelines for other opioids, which are more commonly used in real-world settings for pain management, are currently lacking. Hence, further studies are warranted to bridge this gap in our knowledge base and ultimately ascertain the role of pharmacogenetic markers as predictors of response to opioid analgesics. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
PMID: 28699646 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]