Effect of Procalcitonin Testing on Health-care Utilization and Costs in Critically Ill Patients in the United States.

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Effect of Procalcitonin Testing on Health-care Utilization and Costs in Critically Ill Patients in the United States.

Chest. 2017 Jan;151(1):23-33

Authors: Balk RA, Kadri SS, Cao Z, Robinson SB, Lipkin C, Bozzette SA

Abstract
BACKGROUND: There is a growing use of procalcitonin (PCT) to facilitate the diagnosis and management of severe sepsis. We investigated the impact of one to two PCT determinations on ICU day 1 on health-care utilization and cost in a large research database.
METHODS: A retrospective, propensity score-matched multivariable analysis was performed on the Premier Healthcare Database for patients admitted to the ICU with one to two PCT evaluations on day 1 of ICU admission vs patients who did not have PCT testing.
RESULTS: A total of 33,569 PCT-managed patients were compared with 98,543 propensity score-matched non-PCT patients. In multivariable regression analysis, PCT utilization was associated with significantly decreased total length of stay (11.6 days [95% CI, 11.4 to 11.7] vs 12.7 days [95% CI, 12.6 to 12.8]; 95% CI for difference, 1 to 1.3; P < .001) and ICU length of stay (5.1 days [95% CI, 5.1 to 5.2] vs 5.3 days [95% CI, 5.3 to 5.4]; 95% CI for difference, 0.1 to 0.3; P < .03), and lower hospital costs ($30,454 [95% CI, 29,968 to 31,033] vs $33,213 [95% CI, 32,964 to 33,556); 95% CI for difference, 2,159 to 3,321; P < .001). There was significantly less total antibiotic exposure (16.2 days [95% CI, 16.1 to 16.5] vs 16.9 days [95% CI, 16.8 to 17.1]; 95% CI for difference, -0.9 to 0.4; P = .006) in PCT-managed patients. Patients in the PCT group were more likely to be discharged to home (44.1% [95% CI, 43.7 to 44.6] vs 41.3% [95% CI, 41 to 41.6]; 95% CI for difference, 2.3 to 3.3; P = .006). Mortality was not different in an analysis including the 96% of patients who had an independent measure of mortality risk available (19.1% [95% CI, 18.7 to 19.4] vs 19.1% [95% CI, 18.9 to 19.3]; 95% CI for difference, -0.5 to 0.4; P = .93).
CONCLUSIONS: Use of PCT testing on the first day of ICU admission was associated with significantly lower hospital and ICU lengths of stay, as well as decreased total, ICU, and pharmacy cost of care. Further elucidation of clinical outcomes requires additional data.

PMID: 27568580 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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