Procedural sedation in the emergency department by Dutch emergency physicians: a prospective multicentre observational study of 1711 adults.
Emerg Med J. 2016 Oct 21;:
Authors: Smits GJ, Kuypers MI, Mignot LA, Reijners EP, Oskam E, Van Doorn K, Thijssen WA, Korsten EH
OBJECTIVE: To describe our experience performing ED procedural sedation in a country where emergency medicine (EM) is a relatively new specialty.
METHODS: This is a prospective observational study of adult patients undergoing procedural sedation by emergency physicians (EPs) or EM residents in eight hospitals in the Netherlands. Data were collected on a standardised form, including patient characteristics, sedative and analgesic used, procedural success, adverse events (classified according to World SIVA) and rescue interventions.
RESULTS: 1711 adult cases were included from 2006 to 2013. Propofol, midazolam and esketamine (S+ enantiomer of ketamine) were the most used sedatives (63%, 29% and 8%). We had adverse event data on all patients. The overall adverse event rate was 11%, mostly hypoxia or apnoea. There was no difference in adverse event rate between EPs and EM residents. However, there was a significantly higher success rate of the procedure when EPs did the procedural sedation (92% vs 84%). No moderate (unplanned hospital admission or escalation of care) or sentinel SIVA outcomes occurred (pulmonary aspiration syndrome, death or permanent neurological deficit).
CONCLUSION: Adverse events during procedural sedation occurred in 11% of patients. There were no moderate or sentinel outcomes. All events could be managed by the sedating physician. In a country where EM is a relatively new specialty, procedural sedation appears to be safe when performed by EPs or trained EM residents and has comparable adverse event rates to international studies.
PMID: 27797871 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]