Comparative Effect of Contrast Media Type on the Incidence of Contrast-Induced Nephropathy: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

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Comparative Effect of Contrast Media Type on the Incidence of Contrast-Induced Nephropathy: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Ann Intern Med. 2016 Mar 15;164(6):417-24

Authors: Eng J, Wilson RF, Subramaniam RM, Zhang A, Suarez-Cuervo C, Turban S, Choi MJ, Sherrod C, Hutfless S, Iyoha EE, Bass EB

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Iodine contrast media are essential components of many imaging procedures. An important potential side effect is contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN).
PURPOSE: To compare CIN risk for contrast media within and between osmolality classes in patients receiving diagnostic or therapeutic imaging procedures.
DATA SOURCES: PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Clinical Trials.gov, and Scopus through June 2015.
STUDY SELECTION: Randomized, controlled trials that reported CIN-related outcomes in patients receiving low-osmolar contrast media (LOCM) or iso-osmolar contrast media for imaging.
DATA EXTRACTION: Independent study selection and quality assessment by 2 reviewers and dual extraction of study characteristics and results.
DATA SYNTHESIS: None of the 5 studies that compared types of LOCM reported a statistically significant or clinically important difference among study groups, but the strength of evidence was low. Twenty-five randomized, controlled trials found a slight reduction in CIN risk with the iso-osmolar contrast media agent iodixanol compared with a diverse group of LOCM that just reached statistical significance in a meta-analysis (pooled relative risk, 0.80 [95% CI, 0.65 to 0.99]; P = 0.045). This comparison's strength of evidence was moderate. In a meta regression of randomized, controlled trials of iodixanol, no relationship was found between route of administration and comparative CIN risk.
LIMITATIONS: Few studies compared LOCM. Procedural details about contrast administration were not uniformly reported. Few studies specified clinical indications or severity of baseline renal impairment.
CONCLUSION: No differences were found in CIN risk among types of LOCM. Iodixanol had a slightly lower risk for CIN than LOCM, but the lower risk did not exceed a criterion for clinical importance.
PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.

PMID: 26830055 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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