Bacteremia due to Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae in Neutropenic Patients with Hematologic Malignancies.
J Infect. 2016 Jul 9;
Authors: Satlin MJ, Cohen N, Ma KC, Gedrimaite Z, Soave R, Askin G, Chen L, Kreiswirth BN, Walsh TJ, Seo SK
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence, risk factors, treatments, and outcomes of bloodstream infections (BSIs) due to carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) in adult neutropenic patients with hematologic malignancies.
METHODS: We reviewed all BSIs between 2008-2012 in this population at two New York City oncology centers. A case-control study was conducted to identify CRE BSI risk factors, using three controls of non-CRE BSIs per case.
RESULTS: CRE caused 43 (2.2%) of 1,992 BSIs overall and 4.7% of Gram-negative bacteremias. Independent risk factors for CRE BSI were prior β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.2; P=0.03) or carbapenem (aOR 3.0; P=0.05) use, current trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (aOR 24; P=0.001) or glucocorticoid (aOR 5.4, P=0.004) use, and having a prior CRE culture (aOR 12; P=0.03). Patients with CRE bacteremia had a median of 52 hours from culture collection until receipt of active therapy. They had a 51% BSI-related mortality rate, with a median of 4 days from bacteremia onset until death. CRE-active empirical therapy was associated with a lower 30-day mortality rate (17% vs. 59%; P=0.08).
CONCLUSIONS: CRE are lethal emerging causes of bacteremia in neutropenic patients. New strategies are needed to shorten the delay in administration of CRE-active agents and improve outcomes in this vulnerable population.
PMID: 27404978 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]