Precipitating factors of heart failure admission: Differences related to age and left ventricular ejection fraction.
Int J Cardiol. 2016 Jun 15;219:150-155
Authors: Salamanca-Bautista P, Conde-Martel A, Aramburu-Bodas Ó, Formiga F, Trullàs JC, Quesada-Simón MA, Casado-Cerrada J, Ruiz-Laiglesia F, Manzano L, Montero-Pérez-Barquero M, RICA investigators group
AIM: To evaluate precipitating factors (PF) of exacerbation in heart failure (HF) and their relationship with age, preserved vs. reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and short-term prognosis.
METHODS: We included and followed 2962 patients admitted with acute HF to Internal Medicine Units. Several PF were identified. Differences in PF according to preserved vs. reduced LVEF and age (patients≥80years vs. younger) were analyzed. Primary endpoints were readmission due to worsening HF and all-cause mortality at 3months follow-up. Multivariable Cox models were conducted to identify the independent predictors of 3-months mortality and readmission.
RESULTS: More than half of the patients were 80years and over, 47% were women and 61% had preserved LVEF. Atrial fibrillation (AF) and myocardial ischemia were the more common cause of decompensation among octogenarians. It was more frequent to find myocardial ischemia or non-adherence to treatment as precipitants in patients with systolic dysfunction. However, respiratory infections, AF and poor control of blood pressure were more usual in patients with preserved LVEF compared to those with LVEF <50%. Patients admitted for HF precipitated by myocardial ischemia had a higher risk of readmission at 3months (HR 1.49; CI 95%: 1.12-1.99, p=0.006) and the longest hospital stay (12days). PF showed no predictive value for mortality.
CONCLUSION: Myocardial ischemia as a PF was an independent marker for HF readmissions at 3-months follow-up. Precipitants are different depending on the age and LVEF of patients. Their identification could improve risk stratification and prevention strategies.
PMID: 27323341 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]