Emerging hepatic syndromes: pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment.
Intern Emerg Med. 2016 Jun 7;
Authors: Bertino G, Privitera G, Purrello F, Demma S, Crisafulli E, Spadaro L, Koukias N, Tsochatzis EA
Liver cirrhosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, mainly due to complications of portal hypertension. In this article, we review the current understanding on the pathophysiology, the diagnostic criteria and the available therapeutic options for patients with emerging hepatic syndromes in cirrhosis, namely the hepatorenal, hepato-adrenal and hepatopulmonary syndrome. The hepatorenal syndrome is a well-recognized complication of advanced cirrhosis and is usually associated with an accelerated course to death unless liver transplantation is performed. The hepatopulmonary syndrome is often missed in the evaluation of patients with cirrhosis; however, early recognition is essential for the efficient management of individual patients. The hepato-adrenal syndrome, although not fully characterized, offers an exciting field for research and potential therapeutic interventions.
PMID: 27273018 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]