Use of renin angiotensin system inhibitors in patients with chronic kidney disease.
Intern Med J. 2016 May;46(5):626-30
Authors: Adam WR, Wright JR
Current guidelines recommend renin angiotensin system inhibitors (RASI) as key components of treatment of hypertension in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), because of their effect on reducing the future rate of loss of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). A common risk of RASI in CKD is a haemodynamically mediated, and reversible, fall in GFR of varying severity and duration, any time after commencement of the Inhibitors. A benefit of the acute reduction in filtration rate with RASI may be a reduction in the future rate of loss in GFR: the greatest benefit likely to be in those patients with a greater rate of loss of GFR prior to, and a lesser acute loss of GFR after, introduction of RASI; and in those patients with significant proteinuria. An acute loss of GFR of >25% following the introduction of RASI is an indication to cease the RASI. An acute loss of GFR < 25% requires consideration of the likely risks of the lower GFR and benefits of any future reduced rate of loss of GFR. A fall in GFR in patients while on RASI is usually associated with a remediable cause. When the cause for the fall in GFR is not revealed, and the fall is less than 25%, hopeful expectancy is recommended. Hyperkalaemia in patients with CKD on RASI is more common with more severe disease, potassium retaining diuretics and hypoaldosteronism. Treatment should be modified to maintain a plasma potassium <6 mmol/L.
PMID: 27170242 [PubMed - in process]