Empiric use of linezolid in febrile hematology and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients colonized with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp.

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Empiric use of linezolid in febrile hematology and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients colonized with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp.

Int J Infect Dis. 2015 Apr;33:171-6

Authors: Lisboa LF, Miranda BG, Vieira MB, Dulley FL, Fonseca GG, Guimarães T, Levin AS, Shikanai-Yasuda MA, Costa SF

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: We conducted a retrospective study on the impact of the empiric use of linezolid on mortality in vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp (VRE)-colonized hematology and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) patients.
METHODS: VRE-colonized inpatients for whom complete data were available (n=100) were divided into two groups: those who received empiric linezolid in the course of fever refractory to broad-spectrum antibiotics, replacing the glycopeptide utilized for the previous 48 h, and those who did not (control group). All patients were followed until hospital discharge or death. The impact of linezolid and risk factors for all-cause mortality were evaluated; variables with p<0.10 were analyzed in a multivariate model. A Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was done to compare survival among febrile patients colonized by VRE who received empiric linezolid with patients who did not receive linezolid.
RESULTS: Patients empirically prescribed linezolid were generally younger (median age 33 vs. 44 years; p=0.008) and more likely to be recipients of an allogeneic HSCT (24 (68.6%) vs. 24 (36.9%); p=0.009) than patients who did not receive the drug. Fourteen (21.5%) VRE bloodstream infections were diagnosed, all in patients who did not receive empiric linezolid (p=0.002). In-hospital mortality was comparable in empiric linezolid and non-linezolid users (19 (54.3%) vs. 27 (41.5%), respectively; p=0.293). The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed no significant difference in survival comparing the group that received linezolid to the group that did not (p=0.72). Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD; odds ratio (OR) 5.90, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.46-23.79; p=0.012) and persistence of neutropenia (OR 6.93, 95% CI 1.72-27.94; p=0.0065) were independent predictors of all-cause in-hospital death in HSCT patients, and persistence of neutropenia in non-HSCT patients (OR 8.12, 95% CI 1.22-53.8; p=0.030).
CONCLUSIONS: The empiric use of linezolid in VRE-colonized hematology patients had no impact on mortality, which appeared rather to be associated with the persistence of neutropenia in general and GVHD in the HSCT group.

PMID: 25660090 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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