Therapeutic management of peritonitis: a comprehensive guide for intensivists.
Intensive Care Med. 2016 Mar 16;
Authors: Montravers P, Blot S, Dimopoulos G, Eckmann C, Eggimann P, Guirao X, Paiva JA, Sganga G, De Waele J
PURPOSE: The management of peritonitis in critically ill patients is becoming increasingly complex due to their changing characteristics and the growing prevalence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria.
METHODS: A multidisciplinary panel summarizes the latest advances in the therapeutic management of these critically ill patients.
RESULTS: Appendicitis, cholecystitis and bowel perforation represent the majority of all community-acquired infections, while most cases of healthcare-associated infections occur following suture leaks and/or bowel perforation. The micro-organisms involved include a spectrum of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as anaerobes and fungi. Healthcare-associated infections are associated with an increased likelihood of MDR pathogens. The key elements for success are early and optimal source control and adequate surgery and appropriate antibiotic therapy. Drainage, debridement, abdominal cleansing, irrigation, and control of the source of contamination are the major steps to ensure source control. In life-threatening situations, a "damage control" approach is the safest way to gain time and achieve stability. The initial empirical antiinfective therapy should be prescribed rapidly and must target all of the micro-organisms likely to be involved, including MDR bacteria and fungi, on the basis of the suspected risk factors. Dosage adjustment needs to be based on pharmacokinetic parameters. Supportive care includes pain management, optimization of ventilation, haemodynamic and fluid monitoring, improvement of renal function, nutrition and anticoagulation.
CONCLUSIONS: The majority of patients with peritonitis develop complications, including worsening of pre-existing organ dysfunction, surgical complications and healthcare-associated infections. The probability of postoperative complications must be taken into account in the decision-making process prior to surgery.
PMID: 26984317 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]