Prevalence of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in patients with superficial vein thrombosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
J Thromb Haemost. 2016 Feb 4;
Authors: Di Minno MN, Ambrosino P, Ambrosini F, Tremoli E, Minno GD, Dentali F
BACKGROUND: Some studies suggest that patients with superficial vein thrombosis (SVT) have a non-negligible risk of concomitant deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE) at the time of SVT diagnosis. Unfortunately, available data on this association are widely variable.
OBJECTIVES: A systematic review and meta-analysis of literature was performed to evaluate the prevalence of concomitant DVT/PE in patients with SVT of the lower limbs.
METHODS: Studies reporting on DVT/PE presence in SVT patients were systematically searched in the PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus and EMBASE databases. Weighted mean prevalence (WMP) of DVT and PE was calculated using the random effect model.
RESULTS: Twenty-one studies (4,358 patients) evaluated the prevalence of DVT and eleven studies (2,484 patients) evaluated the prevalence of PE in patients with SVT. The WMP of DVT at SVT diagnosis was 18.1% (95%CI: 13.9%, 23.3%) and the WMP of PE was 6.9% (95%CI: 3.9%, 11.8%). Heterogeneity among the studies was substantial. Selection of studies including out-patients only gave similar results (WMP of DVT: 18.2%, 95%CI: 12.2, 26.3% and WMP of PE: 8.2%, 95%CI: 3.3%, 18.9%). A younger age, female gender, recent trauma and pregnancy were inversely associated with the presence of DVT/PE in SVT patients.
CONCLUSIONS: Results of our large meta-analysis suggest that the prevalence of DVT and PE in patients presenting with SVT is not negligible. A screening for a major thromboembolic event may be worthy in some SVT patients to plan the adequate anticoagulant treatment. Other high quality studies are warranted to confirm our findings.
PMID: 26845754 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]