Polymicrobial intensive care unit-acquired pneumonia: prevalence, microbiology and outcome.

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Polymicrobial intensive care unit-acquired pneumonia: prevalence, microbiology and outcome.

Crit Care. 2015;19(1):450

Authors: Ferrer M, Difrancesco LF, Liapikou A, Rinaudo M, Carbonara M, Li Bassi G, Gabarrus A, Torres A

BACKGROUND: Microbial aetiology of intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired pneumonia (ICUAP) determines antibiotic treatment and outcomes. The impact of polymicrobial ICUAP is not extensively known. We therefore investigated the characteristics and outcomes of polymicrobial aetiology of ICUAP.
METHOD: Patients with ICUAP confirmed microbiologically were prospectively compared according to identification of 1 (monomicrobial) or more (polymicrobial) potentially-pathogenic microorganisms. Microbes usually considered as non-pathogenic were not considered for the etiologic diagnosis. We assessed clinical characteristics, microbiology, inflammatory biomarkers and outcome variables.
RESULTS: Among 441 consecutive patients with ICUAP, 256 (58 %) had microbiologic confirmation, and 41 (16 %) of them polymicrobial pneumonia. Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae, and several Enterobacteriaceae were more frequent in polymicrobial pneumonia. Multi-drug and extensive-drug resistance was similarly frequent in both groups. Compared with monomicrobial, patients with polymicrobial pneumonia had less frequently chronic heart disease (6, 15 % vs. 71, 33 %, p = 0.019), and more frequently pleural effusion (18, 50 %, vs. 54, 25 %, p = 0.008), without any other significant difference. Appropriate empiric antimicrobial treatment was similarly frequent in the monomicrobial (185, 86 %) and the polymicrobial group (39, 95 %), as were the initial response to the empiric treatment, length of stay and mortality. Systemic inflammatory response was similar comparing monomicrobial with polymicrobial ICUAP.
CONCLUSION: The aetiology of ICUAP confirmed microbiologically was polymicrobial in 16 % cases. Pleural effusion and absence of chronic heart disease are associated with polymicrobial pneumonia. When empiric treatment is frequently appropriate, polymicrobial aetiology does not influence the outcome of ICUAP.

PMID: 26703094 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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