D-dimer and histamine in early stage bacteremia: A prospective controlled cohort study.
Eur J Intern Med. 2015 Nov 13;
Authors: Schwameis M, Steiner MM, Schoergenhofer C, Lagler H, Buchtele N, Jilma-Stohlawetz P, Boehm T, Jilma B
INTRODUCTION: Plasma histamine levels and D-dimer predict disease severity and mortality in advanced septic shock. We hypothesized that increased plasma histamine levels parallel coagulation activation and yield prognostic significance already at a very early stage of bacteremia.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: This prospective controlled cohort study enrolled 72 consecutive non-surgical non-ICU-ward inpatients with newly culture-diagnosed bacteremia and a Pitt Bacteremia score ≤2 to determine the extent of histamine and D-dimer release and their predictive role on outcome at the earliest stage of blood stream infection. Age-matched healthy adults served as internal controls (n=36). A binominal logistic regression and a Cox proportional hazards regression analysis were performed to ascertain the effects of D-dimer and histamine on in-hospital mortality.
RESULTS: In contrast to plasma histamine, D-dimer levels were significantly higher within hours of culture-proven bacteremia. In-hospital mortality occurred in 17%. Histamine levels were neither associated with D-dimer level (r=0.04; p>0.05) nor with ICU admissions (r=0.06; p>0.05) and outcome (crude OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.3-1.9; p=0.6). In contrast, early-elevated D-dimer levels predicted mortality: the odds to die increased with the D-dimer level, and was 12.6 (crude OR, 95% CI 3-52; p=0.001) in patients with a D-dimer ≥4μg/mL (n=13).
CONCLUSION: Histamine levels are elevated in only few patients (4%) with newly diagnosed bacteremia. Our findings suggest that D-dimer, but not plasma histamine, could be a promising marker of lethality already at a very early stage of blood stream infection.
PMID: 26586287 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]