Prognostic factors of mortality among patients with severe hyperglycemia.

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Prognostic factors of mortality among patients with severe hyperglycemia.

Am J Manag Care. 2015 Jan;21(1):e9-e22

Authors: Guo YW, Wu TE, Chen HS

OBJECTIVES: Severe hyperglycemia is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in a variety of patients. We undertook this study to identify prognostic factors of mortality among patients experiencing severe hyperglycemia in the emergency department (ED).
STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal observation study.
METHODS: We recruited patients who visited the ED with blood glucose levels higher than 500 mg/dL between July 2008 and September 2010. The primary outcome was death from any cause within 90 days. Outcome analysis was first performed with Pearson's χ(2) test. Any characteristic with suspected significance (P < .1) was then used in a univariate Cox regression model. The variables found to be statistically significant were then subjected to multivariate analysis for further investigation.
RESULTS: Among 733 patients with severe hyperglycemia, the 90-day mortality rate was 14.6% (n = 107). Independent prognostic factors for increasing 90-day mortality included elevated absolute neutrophil count (hazard ratio [HR], 7.34), elevated C-reactive protein (HR, 4.48), elevated blood urea nitrogen (HR, 3.04), elevated respiratory rate (HR, 2.91), decreasing body temperature (HR, 2.68), decreasing systolic blood pressure (HR, 2.65), elevated potassium (HR, 2.54), decreasing blood glucose (HR, 2.46), elevated creatinine (HR, 2.40), elevated white blood cell count (HR, 2.30), and elevated ratio of blood urea nitrogen to creatinine (HR, 2.23).
CONCLUSIONS: The 90-day mortality rate among patients with severe hyperglycemia in the ED was 14.6%. Sepsis, renal impairment with electrolyte imbalance, and lower blood pressure were independent prognostic factors.

PMID: 25880272 [PubMed - in process]

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