The probability of seizures during EEG monitoring in critically ill adults.
Clin Neurophysiol. 2015 Mar;126(3):463-71
Authors: Westover MB, Shafi MM, Bianchi MT, Moura LM, O'Rourke D, Rosenthal ES, Chu CJ, Donovan S, Hoch DB, Kilbride RD, Cole AJ, Cash SS
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the risk for seizures over time in relation to EEG findings in hospitalized adults undergoing continuous EEG monitoring (cEEG).
METHODS: Retrospective analysis of cEEG data and medical records from 625 consecutive adult inpatients monitored at a tertiary medical center. Using survival analysis methods, we estimated the time-dependent probability that a seizure will occur within the next 72-h, if no seizure has occurred yet, as a function of EEG abnormalities detected so far.
RESULTS: Seizures occurred in 27% (168/625). The first seizure occurred early (<30min of monitoring) in 58% (98/168). In 527 patients without early seizures, 159 (30%) had early epileptiform abnormalities, versus 368 (70%) without. Seizures were eventually detected in 25% of patients with early epileptiform discharges, versus 8% without early discharges. The 72-h risk of seizures declined below 5% if no epileptiform abnormalities were present in the first two hours, whereas 16h of monitoring were required when epileptiform discharges were present. 20% (74/388) of patients without early epileptiform abnormalities later developed them; 23% (17/74) of these ultimately had seizures. Only 4% (12/294) experienced a seizure without preceding epileptiform abnormalities.
CONCLUSIONS: Seizure risk in acute neurological illness decays rapidly, at a rate dependent on abnormalities detected early during monitoring. This study demonstrates that substantial risk stratification is possible based on early EEG abnormalities.
SIGNIFICANCE: These findings have implications for patient-specific determination of the required duration of cEEG monitoring in hospitalized patients.
PMID: 25082090 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]