Clostridium difficile in the ICU: study of the incidence, recurrence, clinical characteristics and complications in a university hospital.
Med Intensiva. 2014 Apr;38(3):140-5
Authors: Salva S, Duran N, Rodriguez V, Nieto L, Serra J, Rello J, CRIPS Investigators
OBJECTIVE: Although several studies have established the association between antibiotics and Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), there is a lack of epidemiological studies on the incidence of CDI in European Intensive Care Units outside the context of infection outbreaks. The present study describes the incidence, patient characteristics, complications, and recurrence rates of CDI in a Spanish ICU.
DESIGN: A retrospective study was carried out.
SETTING: A clinical-surgical ICU with 34 beds, a tertiary referral hospital with 1400 beds.
PATIENTS: All patients over 18 years of age admitted to the ICU from January 2010 to December 2011 with diarrhea for more than 48 h.
STUDY VARIABLES: Underlying diseases, risk factors, fever, leukocyte count, complications, recurrence of infection.
RESULTS: A total of 1936 adult patients were admitted. Seven patients acquired CDI (0.36%), representing an infection rate of 3.1 per 10,000 bed-days and a cumulative incidence rate of 3.6 in two years. The mean age was 61 years. Six patients showed some degree of immunosuppression. The mean APACHE II score at ICU admission was 17 (IQR 13-24). Severe sepsis was reported in 5 cases of CDI, three of which presented shock and multiorgan dysfunction. Four patients presented recurrence of CDI during hospitalization. ICU admission was prolonged for a mean of 24 days (SD 17.8) after diagnosis.
CONCLUSIONS: Less than 1% of the patients admitted to a clinical-surgical ICU in a large teaching institution in Spain developed CDI. However, a high risk of recurrence/complications was associated with prolonged ICU stay.
PMID: 23769945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]