Is anemia a new cardiovascular risk factor?
Int J Cardiol. 2015 Mar 17;186:117-124
Authors: Kaiafa G, Kanellos I, Savopoulos C, Kakaletsis N, Giannakoulas G, Hatzitolios AI
Anemia is frequent in patients with cardiovascular disease and is often characterized as the fifth cardiovascular risk factor. It is considered to develop due to a complex interaction of iron deficiency, cytokine production and impaired renal function, although other factors, such as blood loss, may also contribute. Unfortunately, treatment of anemia in cardiovascular disease lacks clear targets and specific therapy is not defined. Treatment with erythropoietin-stimulating agents in combination with iron is the basic strategy but clear guidelines are not currently available. This review aims to clarify poorly investigated and defined issues concerning the relation of anemia and cardiovascular risk - in particular in patients with acute coronary syndromes and chronic heart failure - as well as the current therapeutic strategies in these clinical conditions.
PMID: 25814357 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]