Primary fluid bolus therapy for infection-associated hypotension in the emergency department.
Crit Care Resusc. 2015 Mar;17(1):6-11
Authors: Lipcsey M, Chiong J, Subiakto I, Kaufman MA, Schneider AG, Bellomo R
OBJECTIVES: The physiological changes associated with fluid bolus therapy (FBT) for patients with infection-associated hypotension in the emergency department (ED) are poorly understood. We describe the physiological outcomes of FBT in the first 6 hours (primary FBT) for patients presenting to the ED with infection-associated hypotension.
METHODS: We studied 101 consecutive ED patients with infection and a systolic blood pressure (SBP)<100 mmHg who underwent FBT in the first 6 hours.
RESULTS: We screened 1123 patients with infection and identified 101 eligible patients. The median primary FBT volume given was 1570 mL (interquartile range, 1000- 2490 mL). The average mean arterial pressure (MAP) did not change from admission to 6 hours in the whole cohort, or in patients who were hypotensive on arrival at the ED. However, the average MAP increased from its lowest value during the first 6 hours (66 mmHg [SD, 10 mmHg]) to its value at 6 hours (73 mmHg [SD, 12 mmHg]; P<0.001). The mean heart rate, body temperature, respiratory rate and plasma creatinine level decreased (P<0.05). In patients who were severely hypotensive (SBP<90 mmHg) on arrival at the ED, the MAP increased from 54 mmHg (SD, 8 mmHg) to 70 mmHg (SD, 14 mmHg) (P<0.001). At 6 hours, however, SBP was still <100 mmHg in 44 patients and <90 mmHg in 17 patients. When noradrenaline was used, in 10 patients, hypotension was corrected in all 10 and the MAP increased from 58 mmHg (SD, 9 mmHg) to 75 mmHg (SD, 13 mmHg).
CONCLUSION: Among ED patients admitted to an Australian teaching hospital with infection, hypotension was uncommon. FBT for hypotension was limited in volumes given and failed to achieve a sustained SBP of >100 mmHg in 40% of cases. In contrast, noradrenaline therapy corrected hypotension in all patients who received it.
PMID: 25702756 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]