Use of Proton Pump Inhibitors in the Management of Gastroesophageal Varices: A Systematic Review.
Ann Pharmacother. 2015 Feb;49(2):207-219
Authors: Lo EA, Wilby KJ, Ensom MH
OBJECTIVE: To review the efficacy and safety of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in gastroesophageal varices (GEVs).
DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE (1946 to September 2014), EMBASE (1974 to September 2014), International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1970 to September 2014), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (1991 to September 2014), Google, and Google Scholar were searched using the following terms: esophageal varices, gastroesophageal varices, variceal hemorrhage, variceal bleeding, banding ligation, endoscopic variceal ligation, sclerotherapy, proton pump inhibitor, PPI, omeprazole, pantoprazole, lansoprazole, dexlansoprazole, rabeprazole, and esomeprazole.
STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: Published and unpublished studies evaluating the clinical outcomes of PPI use for GEVs were included regardless of study design. Non-English and nonhuman studies were excluded.
DATA SYNTHESIS: Of 1156 studies, 20 were included after assessment. There was wide methodological heterogeneity and moderately high risk of bias among studies. Level I evidence suggests that PPIs reduce esophageal ulcer size post-elective esophageal ligation; the clinical importance of such findings is not known given the self-limiting nature of esophageal ulcer. Available evidence does not support a role of PPIs for long-term prophylaxis of portal hypertension-related bleeding and high-dose infusion for acute management of GEV hemorrhage. Retrospective data demonstrate a potential increase in the incidence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in patients with cirrhosis receiving PPIs.
CONCLUSIONS: The best available evidence supports the use of short-course (10 days) PPI post-endoscopic variceal ligation to reduce ulcer size if ulcer healing is a concern. Practices such as high-dose infusion and prolonged use should be discouraged until evidence of benefit becomes available.
PMID: 25583938 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]