Evolution of Insulin: From Human to Analog.
Am J Med. 2014 Oct;127(10S):S25-S38
Authors: Tibaldi JM
The development of insulin analogs has made improved treatment of type 2 diabetes possible. In this article, structural alterations, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, clinical end points, and safety issues are reviewed for the currently available basal insulins, rapid-acting insulins, and premixes. The flatter activity profiles of insulin glargine and insulin detemir translate into good clinical efficacy with a lower risk of hypoglycemia relative to neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin. Weight gain is consistently lower with insulin detemir than with neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin. Insulin degludec, licensed in Europe and Japan but not yet in the United States, has a mean half-life of 25.4 hours, a duration of action of >42 hours, and low variability. In trials in type 2 diabetes, rates of nocturnal hypoglycemia were lower with insulin degludec than with insulin glargine, and more flexible; once-daily dose timing was shown to be possible. Insulin lispro, insulin aspart, and insulin glulisine are rapidly absorbed after injection and thus provide better coverage of the post-prandial glucose surge compared with human insulin. Trials and meta-analyses show that reductions in glycated hemoglobin are similar and control of postprandial glucose is better with the rapid-acting analogs versus human insulin. Convenience is greater for patients because the analogs can be injected just before a meal. In premix or biphasic insulins, a proportion of the rapid-acting analog is protaminated, providing both rapid-acting and intermediate-acting components in one formulation, thus reducing the number of injections required. Alterations to human insulin have resulted in improvements in safety, efficacy, tolerability, and convenience for patients.
PMID: 25282010 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]