Prognostic determinants of community-acquired bloodstream infection in type 2 diabetic patients in ED.
Am J Emerg Med. 2014 Aug 29;
Authors: Yo CH, Lee MT, Gi WT, Chang SS, Tsai KC, Chen SC, Lee CC
OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study is to describe the epidemiology and outcome of community-acquired bloodstream infection (BSI) in type 2 diabetic patients in emergency department (ED).
METHODS: All patients admitted to the ED of the university hospital from June 2010 to June 2011 with a history of type 2 diabetes mellitus and microbiologically documented BSI were retrospectively enrolled. Demographic characteristics, Charlson comorbidity index, antibiotic therapy, clinical severity, microbiological etiology, and diabetes-related complications were recorded in a standardized form. The major outcome measure was 30-day survival. χ(2) Or Student t test was used for univariate analysis, and Cox proportional hazards models were used for multivariate analysis.
RESULTS: Among 250 enrolled emergency patients with BSI, the overall 30-day mortality rate was 15.5%. Twenty-seven patients (10.7%) developed diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), and 22 patients (8.8%) developed hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state. On univariate analysis, DKA rather than hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state was associated with adverse outcome. Other risk factors include higher mean glycated hemoglobin level, presence of underlying malignancy, long-term use of steroids, lower respiratory tract infection, and higher Charlson scores. Multivariate analysis identified 3 independent risk factors for early mortality when severity, comorbidity, age, and sex were under control: DKA (hazard ratio, 3.89; 95% confidence interval, 1.6-8.9), inappropriate antibiotics (2.25, 1.05-4.82), and chronic use of steroid (3.89, 1.1-13.2).
CONCLUSION: In type 2 diabetic patients with BSI, a substantial proportion of patients developed DKA. This condition was probably underrecognized by clinicians and constituted an independent risk factor for short-term mortality. Other identified risk factors are potentially correctable and may allow preventive efforts to individuals at greatest potential benefit.
PMID: 25245283 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]