Noninvasive Ventilation in Withdrawal from Mechanical Ventilation.

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Noninvasive Ventilation in Withdrawal from Mechanical Ventilation.

Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2014 Aug;35(4):507-518

Authors: Ferrer M, Sellares J, Torres A

Patients with chronic airflow obstruction and difficult or prolonged weaning are at increased risk for prolonged invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). Several randomized controlled trials mainly conducted in patients who had pre-existing lung disease have shown that the use of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) to advance extubation in patients with difficult and prolonged weaning can result in reduced periods of endotracheal intubation, complication rates, and improved survival. Patients in these studies were hemodynamically stable, with a normal level of consciousness, no fever, and a preserved cough reflex. The use of NIV in the management of mixed populations with respiratory failure after extubation, including small proportions of chronic respiratory patients did not show clinical benefits included. By contrast, NIV immediately after extubation is effective in avoiding respiratory failure after extubation and improving survival in patients at risk for this complication, particularly those with chronic respiratory disorders, cardiac comorbidity, and hypercapnic respiratory failure. Finally, both continuous positive airway pressure and NIV can improve clinical outcomes in patients with postoperative acute respiratory failure, particularly abdominal and thoracic surgery.

PMID: 25111647 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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