Pathophysiology and pharmacotherapy of gastroparesis: current and future perspectives.
Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2013 May 11;
Authors: Stevens JE, Jones KL, Rayner CK, Horowitz M
Introduction: Gastroparesis is an important clinical disorder characterised by delayed gastric emptying in the absence of mechanical outlet obstruction. Idiopathic, diabetes and postsurgical causes represent the most common aetiologies. The condition commonly manifests as upper gastrointestinal symptoms, including nausea, vomiting, postprandial fullness, early satiety, abdominal pain and bloating. Areas covered: This paper provides a review of the prevalence, pathophysiology and clinical features associated with gastroparesis, with a particular focus on current pharmacological management options and novel and emerging therapies. A literature search was undertaken using the search terms: gastroparesis, diabetic gastroparesis, idiopathic gastroparesis, gastric emptying, prokinetic, metoclopramide, domperidone, erythromycin, motilin, alemcinal, KC11458, mitemcinal, ghrelin, TZP-101, TZP-102, RM-131, tegaserod, prucalopride, naronapride, velusetrag, levosulpiride, itopride, botulinum toxin, gastric electrical stimulation, Enterra. Expert opinion: Strategies for the management of gastroparesis include correction of malnutrition, dehydration and electrolyte imbalance, relief of symptoms by appropriate use of prokinetic and antiemetic agents and, in patients with gastroparesis associated with diabetes or critical illness-induced hyperglycaemia, optimisation of glycaemic control. Conventional prokinetic agents form the mainstay of treatment. While novel pharmacotherapies are in development, compelling evidence for their efficacy, particularly in symptom relief, remains to be established.
PMID: 23663133 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]