Does the Current Definition of Contrast-induced Acute Kidney Injury Reflect a True Clinical Entity?

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Does the Current Definition of Contrast-induced Acute Kidney Injury Reflect a True Clinical Entity?

Acad Emerg Med. 2012 Nov;19(11):1261-7

Authors: Sinert R, Brandler E, Subramanian RA, Miller AC


OBJECTIVES: Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) is defined as either a 25% increase in or an absolute elevation in serum creatinine (SCr) of 0.5 mg/dL, 48 to 72 hours after parenteral contrast exposure. The objective of this study was to compare the incidence and complications of AKI between patients exposed and those unexposed to intravenous (IV) contrast.

METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study using the electronic medical record of adult patients (>18 years) with and without contrast-enhanced abdominal or chest computed tomography (CT) between May 2008 and April 2009. Inclusion criteria were emergency department (ED) patients with normal renal function who received either a contrast-enhanced abdominal or a contrast-enhanced chest CT, compared to those unexposed to IV contrast, with a repeat SCr within 48 to 72 hours. Exclusion criteria were contrast exposure within 7 days before the index visit. CI-AKI in the contrast-exposed group and AKI in the contrast-unexposed group were defined by the same changes in SCr 48 to 72 hours after contrast or ED admission. Data were described by proportions or medians with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) or interquartile ranges (IQR; 25% to 75%). Group comparisons were by Mann-Whitney U or Fisher's exact test (? = 0.05, two tails).

RESULTS: The contrast-exposed (n = 773) and contrast-unexposed (n = 2,956) patients were evenly matched for initial demographic, renal, and metabolic parameters. The incidence of CI-AKI/AKI was significantly higher for the patients unexposed versus exposed to contrast (8.96% vs. 5.69%, p = 0.003). There was no significant difference in mortality rates between contrast-exposed and unexposed patients (9.09% vs. 6.79%, p = 0.533).

CONCLUSIONS: The definition of CI-AKI for ED patients with normal renal function may not represent a true clinical entity and the definition warrants revision.

PMID: 23167857 [PubMed - in process]

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