Update on risk scoring systems for patients with upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage.
World J Gastroenterol. 2012 Jun 14;18(22):2739-44
Authors: Stanley AJ
Upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage (UGIH) remains a common medical emergency worldwide. It is increasingly recognised that early risk assessment is an important part of management, which helps direct appropriate patient care and the timing of endoscopy. Several risk scores have been developed, most of which include endoscopic findings, although a minority do not. These scores were developed to identify various end-points including mortality, rebleeding or clinical intervention in the form of transfusion, endoscopic therapy or surgery. Recent studies have reported accurate identification of a very low risk group on presentation, using scores which require simple clinical or laboratory parameters only. This group may not require admission, but could be managed with early out-patient endoscopy. This article aims to describe the existing pre- and post-endoscopy risk scores for UGIH and assess the published data comparing them in the prediction of outcome. Recent data assessing their use in clinical practice, in particular the early identification of low-risk patients, are also discussed.
PMID: 22719181 [PubMed - in process]