Temporal trends in infective endocarditis in the context of prophylaxis guideline modifications: three successive population-based surveys.
J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012 May 29;59(22):1968-76
Authors: Duval X, Delahaye F, Alla F, Tattevin P, Obadia JF, Le Moing V, Doco-Lecompte T, Celard M, Poyart C, Strady C, Chirouze C, Bes M, Cambau E, Iung B, Selton-Suty C, Hoen B,
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to evaluate temporal trends in infective endocarditis (IE) incidence and clinical characteristics after 2002 French IE prophylaxis guideline modifications.
BACKGROUND: There are limited data on changes in the epidemiology of IE since recent guidelines recommended restricting the indications of antibiotic prophylaxis of IE.
METHODS: Three 1-year population-based surveys were conducted in 1991, 1999, and 2008 in 3 French regions totaling 11 million inhabitants age ?20 years. We prospectively collected IE cases from all medical centers and analyzed age- and sex-standardized IE annual incidence trends.
RESULTS: Overall, 993 expert-validated IE cases were analyzed (323 in 1991; 331 in 1999; and 339 in 2008). IE incidence remained stable over time (95% confidence intervals given in parentheses/brackets): 35 (31 to 39), 33 (30 to 37), and 32 (28 to 35) cases per million in 1991, 1999, and 2008, respectively. Oral streptococci IE incidence did not increase either in the whole patient population (8.1 [6.4 to 10.1], 6.3 [4.8 to 8.1], and 6.3 [4.9 to 8.0] in 1991, 1999, and 2008, respectively) or in patients with pre-existing native valve disease. The increased incidence of Staphylococcus aureus IE (5.2 [3.9 to 6.8], 6.8 [5.3 to 8.6], and 8.2 [6.6 to 10.2]) was not significant in the whole patient population (p = 0.228) but was significant in the subgroup of patients without previously known native valve disease (1.6 [0.9 to 2.7], 3.7 [2.6 to 5.1], and 4.1 [3.0 to 5.6]; p = 0.012).
CONCLUSIONS: Scaling down antibiotic prophylaxis indications was not associated with an increased incidence of oral streptococcal IE. A focus on avoidance of S. aureus bacteremia in all patients, including those with no previously known valve disease, will be required to improve IE prevention.
PMID: 22624837 [PubMed - in process]