Acute respiratory distress syndrome: diagnosis and management.
Am Fam Physician. 2012 Feb 15;85(4):352-8
Authors: Saguil A, Fargo M
Acute respiratory distress syndrome manifests as rapidly progressive dyspnea, tachypnea, and hypoxemia. Diagnostic criteria include acute onset, profound hypoxemia, bilateral pulmonary infiltrates, and the absence of left atrial hypertension. Acute respiratory distress syndrome is believed to occur when a pulmonary or extrapulmonary insult causes the release of inflammatory mediators, promoting neutrophil accumulation in the microcirculation of the lung. Neutrophils damage the vascular endothelium and alveolar epithelium, leading to pulmonary edema, hyaline membrane formation, decreased lung compliance, and difficult air exchange. Most cases of acute respiratory distress syndrome are associated with pneumonia or sepsis. It is estimated that 7.1 percent of all patients admitted to an intensive care unit and 16.1 percent of all patients on mechanical ventilation develop acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome. In-hospital mortality related to these conditions is between 34 and 55 percent, and most deaths are due to multiorgan failure. Acute respiratory distress syndrome often has to be differentiated from congestive heart failure, which usually has signs of fluid overload, and from pneumonia. Treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome is supportive and includes mechanical ventilation, prophylaxis for stress ulcers and venous thromboembolism, nutritional support, and treatment of the underlying injury. Low tidal volume, high positive end-expiratory pressure, and conservative fluid therapy may improve outcomes. A spontaneous breathing trial is indicated as the patient improves and the underlying illness resolves. Patients who survive acute respiratory distress syndrome are at risk of diminished functional capacity, mental illness, and decreased quality of life; ongoing care by a primary care physician is beneficial for these patients.
PMID: 22335314 [PubMed - in process]