Dysnatremia in the ICU.
Curr Opin Crit Care. 2011 Oct 24;
Authors: Pokaharel M, Block CA
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dysnatremias, disorders of sodium concentration, are exceedingly common in critically ill patients and confer increased risk for adverse outcomes including mortality. The physiology that underpins the diagnosis and management of these disorders is complex. This review seeks to discuss current literature regarding the pathophysiology, diagnosis, epidemiology, and management of these disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: The role of arginine vasopressin in the maintenance of normal and pathologic plasma osmolality increasingly is refined, improving our ability to diagnose and understand dysnatremia. Identified recent epidemiologic studies highlight the frequent hospital acquisition or exacerbation of dysnatremia, confirm the recognized adverse consequences and explore the potential causality. Despite the complex nature of these disorders, simple consensus treatment strategies have emerged. SUMMARY: Dysnatremia remains a common disorder across the spectrum of critically ill patients. It is frequently hospital acquired. Simplified treatment regimens are proposed and the potential for prevention or earlier recognition and intervention is emphasized. Future directions of interest include further exploration of how dysnatremia contributes to adverse outcomes and new treatment strategies.
PMID: 22027406 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]