Effect of bar-code-assisted medication administration on nurses' activities in an intensive care unit: A time-motion study.
Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2011 Jun 1;68(11):1026-31
Authors: Dwibedi N, Sansgiry SS, Frost CP, Dasgupta A, Jacob SM, Tipton JA, Shippy AA
Purpose The effect of bar-code-assisted medication administration (BCMA) on nurses' activities in an intensive care unit was evaluated. Methods A prospective, observational, time-motion study was conducted by considering two approaches to medication administration in an intensive care unit: paper-based medication administration (PBMA) and BCMA. The time spent on nursing activities was measured using a prevalidated time-motion observation instrument and categorized based on workflow factors such as direct patient care, indirect patient care, administration, and miscellaneous or other. A descriptive analysis was conducted with the amount of time spent on each of the nursing activities. A multivariate analysis of covariance was conducted to assess the difference between the two approaches for the amount of time spent on various categorized nursing activities. Covariates included in the analysis were patient characteristics, medication administration characteristics, and number of nurses involved in medication administration. Results A total of 101 PBMAs and 151 BCMAs were reviewed. The mean duration of total medication administration time was higher in the BCMA phase compared with the PBMA phase, as was the mean time spent on direct patient care activity. However, nurses spent less time on administration activity during BCMA. Statistical analysis revealed that the medication administration approach (BCMA versus PBMA) had a significant effect on time spent on direct patient care and medication administration activities. Conclusion The implementation of BCMA led to a reduction in the time spent by nurses on medication administration activities and increased the time spent on direct patient care activities.
PMID: 21593231 [PubMed - in process]