Procalcitonin and C-reactive protein levels at admission as predictors of duration of acute brain dysfunction in critically ill patients.
Crit Care. 2011 Mar 2;15(2):R78
Authors: McGrane S, Girard TD, Thompson JL, Shintani AK, Woodworth A, Ely EW, Pandharipande PP
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Non-intensive care unit (ICU) cohorts have shown an association between inflammatory disturbances and delirium, though these relationships have not been studied in critically ill patients. This study sought to investigate the relationship between two inflammatory biomarkers, procalcitonin and C-reactive protein (CRP), and duration of acute brain dysfunction in ventilated patients. METHODS: Patients enrolled in the MENDS trial were assessed daily for delirium using the confusion assessment method-ICU. Plasma levels of procalcitonin and CRP were obtained within 24 hours of enrollment. Proportional odds logistic regression was used to examine the association between procalcitonin and CRP separately with delirium/coma-free days, adjusting for age, acute physiology score (APS) of the acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II, sedation group (dexmedetomidine vs. lorazepam), and sepsis. Secondary analyses examined the association of these markers with other organ dysfunctions and 28-day survival. RESULTS: Eighty-seven patients were included in this analysis. The median age of the patients was 60 years with APACHE II scores of 28; 68% had sepsis within 48 hours of admission. Higher levels of procalcitonin were associated with fewer delirium/coma-free days (OR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3-1.0; P=0.04), whereas higher CRP levels showed trends towards fewer delirium/coma-free days (OR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.3-1.1; P=0.08). Similar relationships were found regardless of the presence of sepsis. No associations were found between procalcitonin or CRP with 28-day survival (P=0.40 and 0.16, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In our pilot study, high baseline inflammatory biomarkers predicted prolonged periods of acute brain dysfunction, implicating inflammation as an important mechanism in the pathophysiology of delirium and coma during critical illness, irrespective of whether patients had sepsis or not.
PMID: 21366899 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]